Urology

Urology

Like many health conditions, people suffer from a wide range of urological disorders that are prevalent in men and women across various age groups. These conditions not only affect the urine output of the individual but also affect the renal functioning, and reproductive function in men.

Urological surgeries in children

The common urology surgeries performed in children are:

Vesicoureteral reflux surgery: Vesicoureteral reflux is a condition where the urine accumulates in the ureter and does not flow into the bladder causing damage to the kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux surgery helps in the free flow of urine from the ureter into the bladder.

Orchiopexy surgery: Cryptorchidism is a condition in which the testes do not descend into the scrotum after birth. Orchiopexy surgery is used for correcting the undescended testis.

Nephrostomy: Hydronephrosis is a condition where the urine does not flow out of the kidneys leading to fluid retention in the kidneys. Nephrostomy catheter is the procedure performed to helps the urine flow from the kidneys to the bladder.
Myelomeningocele: The outgrowth of the spinal cord known as spina bifida, is a condition where the nerves and muscles of the urinary bladder are contracted towards the spine. This disables the normal functioning of the urinary bladder thereby decreasing the urine output. Myelomeningocele surgery is a prenatal procedure that is performed on the fetus when in the mother’s womb.

Circumcision surgery: It is a surgical procedure for removal of the foreskin of the penis. It is practiced either due to traditional practices or due to infections of the urinary tract.

Urological surgeries in adults

The common urology surgeries performed in adults include:

Kidney and ureteral stones surgery: The surgery is performed to re move stones of the kidneys and the urinary tract. Kidney or ureteral stones are the accumulation of the salts that turn into crystals that obstruct the flow of urine.

Kidney transplantation surgery: The surgery is performed to replace the diseased kidney with a donor's kidney in individuals suffering from chronic kidney disease or kidney failure or cancer of the kidneys.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery: The surgery is intended to treat the patients suffering from enlarged prostate gland. The condition is also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia that affects a large number of elderly men.

Cancer surgery: The surgery is performed to remove a tumor or the infected organ affected with cancer. Kidney, prostate and testicular cancers may affect the urological health in men, whereas ovarian, endometrial, uterine, vaginal and kidney cancers affect the urological health in women.

Before the surgery

• The patient is advised to avoid food consumption for at least 8 hours before the surgery.
• Drugs such as aspirin and other blood-thinning drugs must be discontinued at least one week before the surgery.

Post-surgical complications

The common complications experienced by the patient are:
• Loss of appetite
• Fatigue
• Pain and inflammation at the surgical site
• Bleeding from the surgical site
• Loss of sensation and numbness

After care

After urological surgery, it is essential to take regular medicines and follow a balanced diet for complete recovery. Drinking plenty of water and fluids promote speedy recovery and reduces the risk of UTI. The patient must have regular follow-up visits to check the improvement in the recovery.

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