Ophthalmology – Treatments and Services

The Ophthalmology at Apollo Spectra is one of the most advanced ophthalmological facilities in the country. Offering treatment and care for ophthalmological conditions ranging from the simplest to the most complex, we at Apollo Spectra provide our patrons with some of the most advanced treatment and care. Some of the ophthalmological services provided to you at Apollo Spectra include the following:

Lasik and Refractive Surgery

Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis or LASIK surgery is a refractive type surgery that is performed in order to treat the condition of Myopia (or nearsightedness), Astigmatism and Hyperopia (or farsightedness). The main aim of the LASIK surgery is to help the cornea bend the light rays in such a way as to focus them on the patient’s retina, instead of a point in front of or beyond.

What is the LASIK Refractive surgery?

During the LASIK procedure, one of our expert surgeons at Apollo Spectra creates a flap in the patient’s cornea in order to gain access to the internal parts of the eye. A laser beam is then focussed in order to reshape the cornea and correct the focussing problems of the eye. The process is usually performed under the influence of a topical anaesthesia and lasts for only about 20 minutes, from start to finish. Unlike other traditional forms of correction surgery, a LASIK surgery does not require you to wear spectacles or lenses.

Post Treatment

Varying degrees of discomfort may be observed about 30 to 90 minutes post surgery. This happens owing to the wearing off of the effect of the numbing drops that were administered prior to the surgery. Our experts advise heading home, closing both eyes and resting for a whole day post surgery.The patient is allowed to go home a few hours after the conclusion of the LASIK procedure. Patients may go back to work after one to three days post the LASIK surgery.

Cataract Treatment

Cataract is a condition that occurs when the naturally crystalline eye lens turns opaque, owing to impairments in vision; even resulting in total vision loss in extreme cases. At Apollo Spectra, some of our most highly trained expert ophthalmologists are involved in Cataract diagnosis, treatment as well as in helping patients take preemptive measures to prevent the rapid development and progress of cataract in an individual.

Causes of Cataract

The most common causes of cataract are Age-related metabolic changes. Changes in the lens fibre are some of the primary reasons behind the occurrence of cataract. Congenital, as well as Traumatic Cataract caused due to an injury, are also some common causes of cataract.

 Treatment for Cataract

At Apollo Spectra, we perform highly successful surgical removal of cataract from the eye lens, leading to a total elimination of the problem in a matter of minutes. The Cataract Surgery at Apollo Spectra is conducted under a topical anaesthesia and is a simple procedure lasting about 20 to 30 minutes. Eye drops are used before the commencement of the surgery in order to dilate the pupil, thus making it easier for the ophthalmologist to gain access to the cornea.

Our experts at Apollo Spectra perform phacoemulsification of the patient’s natural eye lens in order to treat cataract. The cataract is broken down into either two or four pieces so as to better facilitate the emulsification of the cataract. The emulsified cataract is then aspirated out with suction, leading to a complete elimination of the cataract from the patient’s eye lens.

Treatment for Glaucoma

The optic nerve is responsible for transferring impulses from the eyes to the brain. Glaucoma is a group of conditions that occur when the optic nerves get damaged, sometimes leading to partial loss of vision in either eye or even to total and complete blindness. Glaucoma can be of two types:

◦    Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma : It is a condition that causes an open anterior chamber angle to appear inside the eye as well as a rise in the IntraOcular Pressure in the eye.

◦    Angle-Closure Glaucoma : Angle-Closure Glaucoma is the condition in which the intraocular fluid builds up within the eye, before finally draining through the normal eye.

Although any individual may be at the risk of developing Glaucoma, individuals falling in the following categories are at a higher risk of developing Glaucoma:

◦    People above the age of 60 years

◦    Individuals suffering from diabetes

◦    Individuals with a family history of high blood pressure

◦    Individuals with a family history of Glaucoma

◦    Frequent steroid users

At Apollo Spectra, we perform Advanced Laser Trabeculoplasty in order to treat Glaucoma. Laser Trabeculoplasty is a painless procedure lasting for about 10 to 15 minutes, that helps cure Glaucoma by decreasing the intraocular pressure that is the reason behind the damage to the optic nerve. Highly experienced and trained surgeons at Apollo Spectra perform the Laser Trabeculoplasty treatment, delivering astoundingly successful results each year.

What is the Laser Trabeculoplasty procedure?

In the Laser Trabeculoplasty, a surgeon administers a topical anaesthesia in the region of the eye that is to be operated upon. An anti-inflammatory medication is then administered in order to prevent a sudden increase in the pressure on the eye post the treatment. Finally, a high intensity laser beam is focussed on the eye so as to allow the fluid to flow to the brain, thus reducing the pressure on the optic nerve.


Post the treatment, the patient may experience temporary inflammation in the eye and/or blurred vision, which improves with continued usage of eye drops over the subsequent days. Our experts also perform and recommend regular eye checkups in order to monitor the improvement of the patient’s condition.

Keratoplasty (Corneal Transplant)

A  Keratoplasty or a Corneal Transplant surgery is performed when the cornea of either eye gets damaged and leads to poor vision. Some of the problems that can be rectified by a Corneal Transplant surgery include the following:

◦    Swelling, thinning or clouding of the cornea

◦    Corneal sores or ulcers owing to the presence of an infection in the body

◦    Corneal scarring due to an injury or an infection

◦    Problems caused due to a previously performed eye operation

◦    Presence of a medical condition known as Keratoconus, resulting in damage to the cornea

A Keratoplasty surgery may be of three types, depending upon the depth and the extent of the damage to the patient’s cornea. These include:

◦    Endothelial Keratoplasty: An Endothelial transplant is the most commonly performed Keratoplasty surgery, with almost half the number of people requiring cornea transplants undergoing this surgery. The Endothelial Keratoplasty procedure involves the removal of the innermost layer of the cornea, known as the Endothelium, as well as the Descemet membrane that lies just above it. These are then replaced with a donated Endothelium with a Descemet membrane still attached to it. The Endothelial Keratoplasty procedure takes only about 30 minutes to one hour in its totality and patients are allowed to head home the same day the surgery is performed.

◦    Partial Thickness Corneal Transplant: A Partial Thickness Corneal Transplant involves the separation of the thick middle and the thin outside layers of the cornea. It is generally performed on patients who are :

▪    Suffering from Keratoconus

▪    Corneal scarring that has not affected the lower layers of the cornea

The healing time for a Partial Thickness Corneal Transplant is relatively short and also involves fewer chances of the development of an infection.

◦    Full Thickness Corneal Transplant: A Full Thickness Corneal Transplant involves the replacement of all the layers of your cornea. This type of surgery is generally performed in case the patient has suffered from :

▪    A severe corneal injury

▪    Severe bulging

▪    Extreme scarring of the cornea

A Full Thickness Corneal Transplant has the longest healing time among the above-mentioned procedures.

Post Treatment

Post the Keratoplasty surgery, recovery time may vary according to type of surgery that is performed. Patients are usually required to wear an eye patch for one to four days post surgery. Regular use of antibiotic eye drops may also be advised by our expert at Apollo Spectra in order to prevent infections in the eye post treatment. Pain relieving medications may also be prescribed, if required.

Squint Surgery

A squint is a misalignment of the eye muscles that leads to a change in the positional angles of the pupil. This misalignment also results in difficulty to focus in one direction, poor vision as well as pain in ocular muscles.

While a squint may appear in individuals at any age, it is generally observed in children immediately post birth. Rectification of the squint at a young age results in preventing major visibility defects in the later stages of life.

There are majorly four different types of squint observed in patients:

  • Extropia : Extropia is the condition which involves the downward movement of the ocular muscles of either one or both eyes.
  • Esotropia : Esotropia refers to the condition in which the ocular muscles of one or both eyes converges towards the centres of the eyes.
  • Hypertropia : Hypertropia is the condition in which the ocular muscles of one or both eyes move in the upward direction.
  • Hypotropia : Hypotropia is a condition in which the ocular muscles of one or both eyes move in the downward direction.

Diagnosis of Squint

At Apollo Spectra, we diagnose squint using the following three methodologies:

◦    Physical Examination: A physical examination of the degree of the angular displacement of the ocular muscles is conducted by the surgeon.

◦    Complete Blood Count: A Complete Blood Count test that helps in obtaining information about the blood picture and the clotting time may also be conducted prior to the correction surgery.

◦    Ultrasound : An Ultrasound may also be conducted in order to view the inside of the eye. This helps in the detection of any internal bleeding in the eye as well as checks the eye for the presence of cataract, tumor or any damage to the optic nerve.

◦    Culture Test and Biopsy : A culture test and biopsy may be performed by your eye expert at Apollo Spectra in order to check for the presence of any eye infections.

Treatment of Squint

In the Strabismus procedure, our expert at Apollo Spectra will make an incision in the white portion of the eye, known as conjunctiva. Tiny medical instruments are then inserted into the eye through this incision in order to correct the realigning of the muscles that are responsible for causing the squint. The tendons or the eye muscles may also be shortened in the process in order to facilitate better alignment of the muscles.

Post Treatment

Recovery from squint surgery may take several weeks. It is common for the eye(s) operated upon to feel sore or become itchy for some days following the surgery. However, if the problem persists, consult your ophthalmologist at Apollo Spectra immediately, so as to arrest any associated or follow up problems at the initial stage itself. Some patients have also reported experiencing temporary double vision for a few days post surgery – so don’t panic. Simply bring it to our notice and we will take care of it immediately. Squints that are corrected in childhood, have a possibility of reappearing in adulthood  – thus it is advisable to consult your expert at Apollo Spectra as soon as you notice any changes in eyesight.


Which is better : PRK or LASIK?

While a LASIK surgery is a very safe mode of treatment, a PRK is even safer. Since the surgery is performed without making use of a corneal flap, there are zero risks associated with the procedure owing to the lack of flap-related complications.

What are some early signs of Glaucoma?

Early signs of Glaucoma include the following:

  • Sudden vision loss
  • Blurred or hazy vision
  • The appearance of rainbow colored circles while looking at bright lights
  • Nausea or vomiting accompanied by severe eye pain
Why Apollo Spectra

At Apollo Spectra, our team of ophthalmologists comprises of some of the most experienced and highly trained professionals and support staff who ensure minimal discomfort and maximum treatment benefits to our patients. Equipped with one of the most advanced facilities in the country with the most up-to-date machinery, Apollo Spectra is your one stop destination for ophthalmological problems.