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Neonatology refers to the care and nurturing of newborn babies. It specifically applies to babies less than 4 weeks old. When the baby is born, they need special care, as they are more prone to infection. Infants (newborn) have a weak immune system and require time to adapt to the outside environment. The specialist in the neonatology field is the neonatologist. A neonatologist is a specially trained doctor to treat newly born babies.

Overview of Neonatology   

A neonatologist is responsible for taking care, especially of those babies who have a premature delivery. These babies are considered to be very critical and need utmost care. Sometimes, the babies are kept in incubation boxes in case of premature deliveries. A premature baby usually has a lower weight than a normal healthy baby. They are more prone to infection than other babies. Neonatology deals with everything your baby requires.

Conditions for Neonatology?

Some of the conditions common in infants and treated under neonatology are as follows-

  • Prematurity – Premature delivery of the baby refers to early delivery, at least 3 weeks before the prescribed date. This may be due to poor nutrition during pregnancy. Other factors which can lead to premature delivery of your baby are smoking, illegal drugs, urinary infections, or previous immature pregnancy cases.

A premature baby is at high risk of diseases. They are often smaller in size than normal babies. They may also have respiratory issues with lower body temperatures. The babies are usually kept in the NICU (neonatal intensive care units) of the hospitals. However, if the baby gets proper care, they will soon become healthy as a normal baby.

  • Birth Trauma- Birth trauma is caused during delivery. The baby gets injured due to excessive pull. They can be sometimes very critical. The baby may damage its organ or he/she may get damages in the brain. However, it is not so common. In case of risks from a normal delivery, the person must choose C-section.
  • Respiratory Dysfunction- The newborns may have respiratory issues which are very common. In these issues, they might have higher or lower respiratory rates. The cause of the disease is immature lungs in babies. This causes loss in weight and poor blood circulation. The doctors will give medications to the babies to open up their lungs for proper breathing. In extreme cases, ventilators are used.
  • Congenital Malformations- Congenital malformation is the defect in any organ of the body from birth. This may be due to some injury during pregnancy or due to side effects of any drugs. Some of the examples of congenital disorders are cleft lip and cleft palate, congenital heart disease, cerebral palsy, down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and others.

To prevent congenital malformations, you must check your family history for any such disease. Further, avoid intake of alcohol, any unprescribed drug, or smoking. Try to be cautious, as these malformations can be due to physical injury to the mothers. Take a proper diet with a complete set of vitamins and minerals your baby requires. Get regular check-ups in case of any family history of congenital diseases.

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  • Neonatal Infections- Neonatal infections are the infections that a baby gets in the first few weeks of birth or can be congenital too. Newly born babies have a low immune system and can easily catch infections. Therefore, it is advised to boil and sterilize all the baby products before using them. The clothes should be changed regularly. The baby should never be dirty to catch infections.


Newly born babies required special care, therefore a complete section of the medical field is dedicated to their health. The field which deals with newly born babies is known as neonatology. The specialist in the field is a neonatologist. Special units are present in hospitals for premature babies i.e. NICU.

What does a neonatologist do?

A neonatologist treats newly born infants and their diseases. They are highly trained to treat the babies with utmost care. They also take care of premature babies.

Does a neonatologist deliver babies?

They are responsible to take care of babies rather than their deliveries. They assist the doctors in taking care of babies during and after the delivery.

What is NICU?

NICU stands for neonatal intensive care unit. This section of the hospital is especially for newly born or premature babies. This unit is well-equipped with instruments and doctors to take care of these babies

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