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Kidney Disease and Nephrology

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Nephrology is the branch of medical science that deals with the normal functioning, disorders, and treatments of the kidney. Kidneys are the bean-shaped organs present in a pair in the abdominal region. They are the organs that help filter out impurities from human blood. Moreover, they also maintain the osmotic and electrolyte concentration of the body.

However, most of this work is usually done through one kidney while the other only performs 1% of the total work. Therefore, in case of emergency, the person can donate one of their kidneys to the needy one. The doctor's specialists in nephrology are often referred to as nephrologists. They are responsible for treating infections and disorders of kidneys.

Kidney Diseases

The diseases or disorders which alter the normal functioning of kidneys can be referred to as kidney diseases. Many diseases can affect a healthy kidney. Some of the most common kidney disorders are-

Kidney Stones- Kidneys are responsible for the removal of excess salt and maintaining the concentration of it in the body. Sometimes, these salts and minerals get accumulated inside the kidneys and form stones. These are kidney stones. This is a very common kidney disorder and has affected a large number of people every year.

Causes- A poor diet with an excess of sugar and lack of exercise can be the causes of kidney stones. Moreover, it can be due to lack of water, due to which kidneys fail to remove the impurities.


The symptoms of kidney stones are as follows-

  • Severe pain in the affected area
  • Sudden fluctuation of the pain cycle
  • Frequent urination
  • Change in color of urine
  • Painful urination
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting


 Treatments of kidney stones vary as per the size of the stone. In the case of small stones, the doctors recommend drugs that help in the dissolution of the stones and pass-out through urine. Moreover, the patients should drink plenty of water to help the stones get out of the body. In the case of bigger stones, they cannot be made to pass through urine. Therefore, a treatment i.e. lithotripsy is done. In this treatment, shock waves are used to break the stones into smaller pieces, so that they can be made to pass out with urine.

Chronic Kidney Disease- It is the most common disorder of the kidney affecting many people worldwide. In this disease, the kidney fails to purify the blood. The main cause of chronic kidney disease is high blood pressure and diabetes.


The symptoms of chronic kidney disease are as follows-

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Sleep apnea
  • Decreased mental ability
  • Frequent urination
  • Muscle cramps
  • High blood pressure


The diagnosis of the disease is through blood or urine tests. Chronic kidney diseases have no complete cure. However, doctors will prescribe medications to slow down its effect. They may treat the root cause of the disease, for instance, treating high BP and maintaining sugar levels. In case of complete damage to the kidneys, kidney transplantation is recommended. Before surgery, the patient is kept on dialysis. Dialysis is the artificial form of the kidney. It purifies the blood artificially.


Nephrology is the study of the kidney and its disorder with the treatment. Kidneys are the vital organs of the human body and their care is a must. A healthy diet with an adequate amount of water plays a major role in maintaining a healthy kidney. Many disorders can affect the kidneys. However, if diagnosed and treated at an early stage, they can be cured. So, in case of any such symptoms always visit your doctor.

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Apollo Spectra Hospitals, Sector 8, Gurugram

Call: 18605002244

What are the most common kidney diseases?

The most common kidney disorders are as follows- Chronic Kidney disease Kidney stones Kidney failures Acute lobar nephronia

What are the signs of Kidney disorders?

The common symptoms of kidney disorders are- Frequent or less urination Change in color of urine Pain in urination Abdomen pain near the kidney region Nausea and vomiting Fatigue

What does a nephrologist do?

The nephrologist is the specialist in treating diseases concerning kidneys. A nephrologist diagnoses the cause of the disease by performing blood and urine tests. After that, they go for oral medication or surgeries according to the patient’s requirement.

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