What is squint surgery? Know about causes and types in squint

Squint or Strabismus is a misalignment of the eye muscles that leads to angular changes of an eye. The faulty angular displacement of the eye leads to poor vision, difficulty to focus in one direction, and pain in the ocular muscles.
Squint is a common condition that occurs in children and adults at any stage of life. However, it is mostly observed in children after birth. Squint when observed in children should be rectified at a young age to prevent visibility defects in later stages of life.

What are the types of squint?
  • Esotropia: The ocular muscles of one or both eyes moves (converges) towards the centre
  • Extropia: The ocular muscles of one or both eyes moves (diverges) away from the centre
  • Hypertropia: The ocular muscles of one or both eyes move in upside direction
  • Hypotropia: The ocular muscles of one or either eye move downside direction
How squint is diagnosed?

The ophthalmologist may recommend the diagnostic tests before scheduling the surgery:
Physical examination- The surgeon physically examines the degree of angular displacement of the eye that helps in further medical procedures.

  • Culture test and the biopsy-The test is performed to detect the presence of eye infections.
  • Ultrasound scan- The test is performed to view the inside of the eye. It helps in the detection of internal bleeding, tumour, cataract or damage of the optic nerves of the eye.
  • Complete blood count- The test helps in obtaining the information of the blood picture and clotting time before the surgery.
What are the important tips before the squint surgery?

The patient is advised to stop using the medications such as NSAIDs, blood-thinning agents, vitamin, and mineral supplements at least one week before the strabismus surgery. The doctor may prescribe eye drops and other eye preparations before the surgery for better surgery outcomes.

The patient must not consume food for at least 8 hours before the surgery and till the completion of strabismus surgery. Patients suffering from diabetes and hypertension should consult the doctor regarding food intake before strabismus surgery.
On the day of the surgery, do not apply any cream, moisturizers, and lotion over the skin. Reach the hospital at least 3-4 hours before the surgery.

What happens during the procedure?

During the strabismus surgery, the surgeon makes a small incision in the conjunctiva (white part) of the eye. Then, small instruments are inserted into the eye that helps in realigning the eye muscles. The eye muscle or tendon may be shortened for better realignment, and the incision is then closed.

What are the Important tips after the squint surgery?

Wear the eye patch for eye protection, until the doctor asks to remove.
Avoid direct exposure to sunlight and high beam lights.
Complete the entire course of medications.

What are the risk associated?
The post-surgical complications include infections, bleeding, blurry vision, itching, and pain. In some cases, individuals may suffer from double vision and eye damage. The risk of post-surgical complications can be controlled by minimizing infections and by regular use of medicines.