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What is Gynecology?

Gynecology is a medical specialty that focuses on female reproductive health issues, such as the development, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of illnesses and diseases that affect the female reproductive system. Obstetrics is responsible for the medical care of a woman and her child before, during, and after birth. Women go through a variety of reproductive events throughout their lives, including menarche, menstruation, pregnancy, maternity, and menopause. These developmental events in female reproduction cause more drastic physiological changes (e.g., menstrual bleeding, physiological changes in pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopausal hormone fluctuations), more significant psychological changes, and more complex psychosocial consequences for women than developmental events in male reproduction. Though most women respond successfully to these reproductive processes, they may become more vulnerable to psychological maladjustment in particular circumstances.

What type of Procedures comes under Gynecology?

  1. Hysterectomy or removal of the uterus
  2. Removing the ovaries or oophorectomy
  3. Vulvectomy: A surgical treatment that involves the removal of all or part of the vulva, which includes the inner and outer labia. 
  4. Cervical biopsy: These types of biopsies are collected from the inner walls of the uterus in the case of womb cancer.
  5. Laparoscopy: It involves viewing the inner abdominal organs of the female reproductive system, is used to identify and treat cysts and infections in the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  6. Adhesiolysis: This procedure is also called lysis of adhesions because the scar tissues are cut precisely. 
  7. Colporrhaphy: Colporrhaphy is a surgical procedure to repair the vaginal wall. Hernias are treated using it.
  8. Fluid-contrast ultrasound: A fluid-contrast ultrasound is a variant of a normal pelvic ultrasound. It is used to assess the uterine lining and the uterine cavity.
  9. Toluidine blue dye test: This test is performed to assess abnormal vulval alterations. When the dye is administered to the vulva, precancerous or cancerous alterations in the skin turn blue.
  10. Trachelectomy: A radical trachelectomy is the removal of the cervix and surrounding tissue, along with some pelvic lymph nodes.
  11. Tubal Ligation: Tubal ligation is a surgical treatment to inhibit pregnancy. It is also known as female sterilization. 
  12. Dilation and curettage: Dilation and curettage is the surgical removal of part of the uterine lining by scraping and scooping after the cervix has been dilated.
  13. Endometrial ablation: Endometrial ablation is a surgical treatment that destroys the uterine lining. Endometrial ablation is used to stop menstrual flow.
  14. Endometrial or uterine biopsy: An endometrial biopsy is a medical technique that involves the removal of a small piece of tissue from the uterine lining (endometrium) for examination under a microscope. The tissue that has been removed is analyzed for cancer and other cell abnormalities.
  15. Hysterosalpingography: A hysterosalpingography is an X-ray that examines the uterus (womb) and fallopian tubes of a woman.
  16. Myomectomy: This surgical operation is used to remove uterine fibroids.
  17. Cystectomy: This surgical operation is done to remove any type of cyst in the reproductive system. 

When to go to a Gynecologist?

The following cases require women to visit a gynecologist office-;

  1. Irregular menstrual cycle
  2. Painful menstruation
  3. Pregnancy
  4. Fibroids
  5. Cysts
  6. Fertility issues
  7. Cancer or functionality issues


The female reproductive system is the focus of gynecology. Obstetrics is a related domain which deals with pregnancy and the procedures and issues that come with it. Whereas gynecology deals with women who aren't pregnant. It encompasses both medical and surgical disciplines. Many gynecological disorders can be managed with hormones and other medications, malignancies, fibroids, and other gynecological conditions that require surgical removal.

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How is Fluid-Contrast Ultrasound done?

Fluid-contrast Ultrasound or FCU can reveal the texture of the uterine lining (endometrium) and any abnormalities such as polyps or fibroids by measuring the thickness of the endometrium. An ultrasound wand is implanted in the vagina and a tiny catheter is introduced through the cervix into the uterus. Sterile fluid is progressively administered into the uterine cavity through the catheter, and the area is imaged using ultrasound.

How is Selective Salpingography done?

A tiny catheter is inserted into the fallopian tube, and dye is administered to detect any obstructions or abnormalities. The pressure of the dye may be all that is required to unblock a blocked fallopian tube in some cases. If not, a salpingography test can be used to conduct a wire guide canalization or a transcervical balloon tuboplasty.

How Are Psychological Issues in Women Related to Gynecological Issues?

Psychological difficulties may increase physiological symptoms associated with reproductive illnesses (e.g., the influence of stress on menstrual cycle disorders). Mental and gynecological difficulties are interwoven, according to the research, with prevalence rates of mental problems as high as 45.3 percent among gynecological outpatients.

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