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Breast cancer

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Breast cancer Treatment & Diagnostics in Chunni Ganj, Kanpur

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. It is the second most common cancer diagnosed in women following skin cancer. It occurs in both men and women but is mainly seen in women.

Early detection, a personalized approach to the treatment, and a better understanding of the cause of the disease have increased the survival rates.

What Is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is the type of cancer that occurs in the cells of breasts. This occurs due to the uncontrolled growth or division of cells due to mutation in the genes.

The tumors or cancerous cells are developed in the lobules, the ducts of the breasts, or also in the fibrous connective tissue within the breasts.

Lobules are the glands responsible for the production of milk and the ducts in the breasts acts as the pathway transferring milk from the lobules to the nipple.

What Are the Stages of Breast Cancer?

According to the doctors, depending on the size of the tumor or whether the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body, the stages of breast cancer are:

  • Stage 0: This is the early stage and is called ductal carcinoma. Here, the cancerous cells or tumors are limited within the ducts of the breasts.
  • Stage 1: In this stage, the tumor measures up to 2 centimeters.
  • Stage 2: In this stage, the tumor measures up to 2 centimeters and has begun to affect the nearby nodes or it measures 2-5 centimeters and has not spread to the nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage 3: In this stage, the tumor measures 5 cm and has spread to several lymph nodes or the tumor is larger than 5 cm and has only spread to a few of the nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage 4: in this stage, the tumor has spread to nearby organs such as the liver, brain, lungs, or bones.

What Are the Symptoms of Breast Cancer?

In the early stages of breast cancer, there might not be any type of signs or symptoms. In several cases, a tumor might be small and cannot be felt. However, certain tests have to be ordered to confirm.

The symptoms or signs of breast cancer include:

  • Lumps or thickening in the breasts
  • Pain in the breast
  • Nipple discharge apart from breast milk
  • Bloody discharge from the nipple
  • Inverted nipple
  • Swelling or lump under the arm
  • Rash around the nipples
  • Change in the shape of the breasts
  • Scaling or peeling of the skin around the breasts
  • Redness or pitting of the skin around the breasts

What Are the Causes of Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is caused due to the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of the cells in the breasts. These cancerous cells divide and multiply more rapidly than normal cells. This multiplication causes the accumulation and forms lumps in the breasts.

Breast cancer starts developing in the inner lining of the milk-producing ducts. The cancerous cells use the nutrients and energy and drain the cells of it.

The other factors that contribute to the cause of breast cancer are:

  • Age: An increase in age increases the risk of breast cancer.
  • Genetics: Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 or TP53 genes increase the chance of having breast cancer.
  • Women with dense breast tissue are likely to develop breast cancer.
  • Developing obesity or the women who are overweight tend to have breast cancer.
  • Higher consumption of alcohol plays role in breast cancer.

When to See a Doctor?

When you feel a lump in your breast or under your arm, it is recommended to see a doctor. Further screening and mammogram may confirm the presence of cancerous cells.

Request an appointment at Apollo Spectra Hospitals, Kanpur

Call 1860-500-2244 to book an appointment

How is Breast Cancer Treated?

Depending on the stage of cancer, medical history of the individual, and their personal preference, there are different treatments available at Apollo Spectra, Kanpur.

These include:

  • Surgery: According to the diagnosis of the stage of breast cancer, the following surgery treatments are preferred:
    • Lumpectomy: This involves the removal of the tumor and a part of the healthy tissue to prevent the cancerous cells from spreading to the nearby lymph nodes.
    • Mastectomy: This involves the removal of lobules, ducts, areola, nipple, fatty tissue, or a part of the skin.
  • Chemotherapy: The doctor prescribes chemotherapy involving drugs that kills the cancerous cells.
  • Radiation Therapy: This involves targeting the tumor with controlled doses of radiation that kill the remaining cancerous cells.
  • Hormone blocking therapy: In these hormones, sensitive breast cancer is prevented to ensure that cancer does not occur after the treatment.


When symptoms of breast cancer start to show up, it is advised to see the doctor. Early detection and treatment provide a positive outlook. Certain lifestyle changes can reduce the risk and complications of breast cancer.

1. Is there a link between oral contraceptives and breast cancer?

There is an increased risk of getting breast cancer if you have been taking oral contraceptives or birth control pills for more than 5 years.

2. Does having cosmetic implants contribute to the diagnosis of breast cancer?

A review in 2013 found that people with cosmetic implants run a higher risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer. This happens because the implants bring changes in the breast tissue and also mask cancer during screening tests.

3. What has breast reconstruction got to do with treatment for breast cancer?

After mastectomy surgery, breast reconstruction is done. It restores the natural feel or looks of the breasts after the surgery.


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