Anal Fissures Treatment & Surgery in Chunni Ganj, Kanpur
Anal fissures are cuts or tears on the inner lining of the anal walls. This can cause bleeding, burning, and spasms. Anal fissures are a common condition that usually requires simple or no treatments. One must be careful if it turns into a chronic condition.
What is an anal fissure?
An anal fissure is a cut or tear of the inner lining or mucosal wall of the anus. This skin is sensitive and easy to rupture. The crack leads to bright blood bleeding, especially during and after bowel movements. Very rarely, the crack becomes deep and exposes the tissue and muscle also.
Anal fissures are a common occurrence in children because children face constipation frequently. In such cases, the fissure heals on its own.
What are the symptoms of anal fissure?
The common symptoms of anal fissures are:
- A crack or tear in the mucosa around the anus.
- Sharp pain at the tear during bowel movements.
- Burning or itching in the anal region during or after defecation.
- Presence of blood along with stools.
- Presence of skin tags near the tear.
What are the causes of an anal fissure?
Anal fissures are common in children and infants due to constipation. Some of the common causes are:
- Frequent diarrhea
- Reduced blood flow in the anal region.
- Anal intercourse
- Strained bowel movements, i.e., constipation
- Large and tight stools
- Strained childbirth
Some of the uncommon causes of anal fissures are:
- Inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease
- STIs like syphilis and herpes
- Anal cancer
When to see a doctor?
Anal fissures cause pain and burning sensation during and after bowel movements. Although the presence of blood may be alarming, stay calm and make an appointment with your doctor. Most cases of anal fissures are easily treatable without even surgery.
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How is an anal fistula diagnosed?
For the diagnosis of anal fistulas, the doctor will first enquire about medical history. After this, a physical exam is done to confirm the diagnosis. In the physical examination, there are three types:
- Anoscopy: a tubular device is inserted into the anus so that the doctor can see the rectum and anus.
- Sigmoidoscopy: to visualize the colon, rectum, and anus clearly, the doctor will insert a thin, flexible tube with a video. This is usually done for those who are not at risk of colon cancer.
- Colonoscopy: it is similar to sigmoidoscopy, but the entire rectum can be seen. This test is usually performed when the patient is older than 50, is at risk of colon cancer, or has other symptoms along with anal fissures.
What are the treatment options available for anal fissures?
In most cases, anal fissures require little to no treatment. The non-surgical treatment for anal fissure includes:
- Stool-softeners, to help in easy bowel passing.
- Increase fluid and fiber intake.
- A Sitz bath, a small shallow bath that cleanses and relaxes the anal sphincter and muscle is advisable.
- Topical application of nitroglycerine ointment helps in increasing the blood flow to the anal muscles, aiding faster healing.
- Topical anesthetic ointments like lidocaine help to relieve the pain.
- Botulinum toxin injection paralyzes the anal sphincter muscle to reduce the spasms and allow relaxation.
In chronic conditions or situations with other complications, the doctor may recommend surgical treatment.
The surgical treatment involves cutting and removing a part of the muscle to relieve the spasm and pain. Without the spasms, healing is much faster. This procedure is called Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy.
Anal fissures are a common condition in many individuals, and they lead to pain and bleeding. With simple non-surgical treatments, most fissures heal. If their healing takes over 8 weeks, one should consider surgical options.
Anal fissures heal easily provided the right care is given. If a fissure is left untreated, it could progress to a chronic stage where a lot of scar tissue develops. This further prevents healing, forms skin tags, and can even lead to fistulas.
Making alterations in the diet through simple steps like staying hydrated, increasing intake of fibrous food and prescribed stool softeners can help faster healing of anal fissures. Sitz bath is also a good remedy to relieve spasms.
Complete healing requires anywhere from 6 to 9 weeks but there is pain relief within 2 days of surgery. You can resume all day-to-day activities within two days.