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Otolaryngology (ENT)

Otolaryngology is a field of science that focuses on the health and maintenance of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT). It also includes head and neck surgeries.

A doctor who specializes in otolaryngology is called an otolaryngologist.

What is otolaryngology?

Otolaryngology is a subsection of medicine that solely focuses on the diseases that plague the ears, nose and throat of a person. They also specialize in head and neck injuries and problems. 

In addition to being medical doctors, ENTs or Otolaryngologists are also surgeons. They can perform surgeries on delicate parts and tissues of the ears. For further information, you should contact an ENT specialist near you.

What are the types of conditions ENT deals with?

There are many otolaryngology diseases, here are some of the most common ones:

  • Ears
    • chronic ear infections
    • ear pain
    • impacted earwax
    • dizziness or vertigo
    • tinnitus
    • hearing loss
    • middle ear fluid
    • otosclerosis
    • temporal bone fractures
    • ruptured eardrum
    • inner ear conditions such as Meniere’s disease
    • ear tumors
    • Eustachian tube dysfunction
  • Nose
    • allergies
    • rhinitis
    • sinusitis
    • deviated septum
    • smell disorders
    • nasally obstructed breathing
    • postnasal drip
    • nosebleeds
    • nasal polyps
  • Throat
    • sore throat
    • conditions affecting the tonsils and adenoids
    • throat tumors
    • snoring
    • sleep apnea
    • airway issues like subglottic stenosis
    • gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    • swallowing disorders
    • vocal cord disorders
    • laryngitis
  • Head and neck
    • infections of the head or neck
    • thyroid conditions
    • congenital neck masses
    • free flap reconstruction
    • tumors in the head or neck
    • facial injuries or deformities, including reconstructive or plastic surgery

What are the symptoms that need ENT treatment?

Some common symptoms of otolaryngology diseases include:

  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Coughing/sneezing
  • Ear pain
  • Hearing loss
  • Ear noise (Tinnitus)
  • Skin cancers/lesions
  • Nose bleeds
  • Thyroid mass
  • Nasal congestion/Nasal itching and rubbing
  • Hoarseness/frequent throat clearing
  • Loss of sense of smell and/or taste
  • Snoring
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Airway issues/difficulty in breathing/mouth breathing
  • Balance problems
  • Sinus pressure
  • Tonsil or adenoid inflammation or infection
  • Skin conditions

When do you need to see a doctor?

If you experience any of the symptoms mentioned above, you should contact your doctor.  If you experience prolonged instances of runny nose and repeated instances of vertigo or dizziness, you should treat it as an emergency. You should look for ENT doctors near you,  if you are worried. 

You can request an appointment at Apollo Spectra Hospitals, Chembur, Mumbai.

Call 1860 500 2244 to book an appointment.

How are ENT diseases prevented?

  • Avoid smoking or exposure to smoking
  • Identify your allergies and take preventative measures
  • Be hydrated, get plenty of fluids
  • Rest properly and sleep for at least 8 hours
  • Limit going out if the air quality is poor
  • Avoid drinking alcohol
  • Take a bath daily
  • Use saline water to treat a blocked nose
  • Wash your hands before and after meals
  • Maintain good hygiene


Otolaryngology infections are extremely common. You should maintain a healthy body to avoid getting these diseases. If you experience any severe or persisting symptoms you should get yourself checked and start medication. 

What is the first symptom of an ENT infection?

The most common symptoms include nasal congestion, recurring infections, vertigo or dizziness, changes in hearing quality, hoarseness of throat that persists for a while, difficulty in swallowing, sleep apnea or problems sleeping.

What is the most common ENT disease?

Dizziness is one of the most common ENT diseases. Hearing loss and breathing problems are also very common.

Are otolaryngology diseases treatable?

ENT diseases are usually easily manageable, with proper medication and precautions. Some diseases can’t be cured if in the last stages like hearing loss, so they should be detected early. You should visit your doctor in case you experience any symptoms.

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