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Fistula Treatment & Surgery

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Fistula Treatment & Diagnosis in Chembur, Mumbai

Everything that you need to know about FistulaSep 18, 2021

An anal fistula is a tiny channel between the anal canal (the end of the bowel) and the skin near the anus. The fistula termination can show up as a hole in the skin around the anus. The anus is the exit point for waste from the body. Fistulas require surgery because they do not heal on their own. Fistulotomy, Seton methods, LIFT operation, and other surgical procedures treat fistulas. An abscess is an infected tissue that drains into a tiny channel or hole.

What is a fistula? 

A gastrointestinal fistula is an unwanted opening in your digestive tract that sanctions gastric fluids that leak through the stomach or intestine lining. When these fluids leak into your skin or other organs, a fistula can increase the risk of infections. Fistula is most frequent following intra-abdominal surgery or surgery on the inside of your abdomen. Fistulas are more likely to occur in those who have persistent digestive difficulties.

What is the different gastrointestinal fistula?

There are four main types of gastrointestinal fistula.

  • Intestinal fistula
  • Extraintestinal fistula
  • External fistula
  • Complex fistula

What are the causes of gastrointestinal fistula?

In around 90 percent of cases, it developed a gastrointestinal fistula after intra-abdominal surgery. Clogged anal glands and anal abscesses are the most common causes of anal fistula.
If you have any of the following, you are more prone to develop a fistula:

  • Crohn's disease (an inflammatory disease of the intestine)
  • Malignant melanoma
  • Treatment for ionizing radiation in your abdomen
  • Obstruction of the bowels
  • Suture issues in surgery
  • Problems with the incision site
  • An abscess is a type of infection.
  • Trauma
  • A condition like a hematoma (blood clot beneath the skin)
  • A growing tumor
  • Diverticulitis (a disease in which diminutive pouches form in the sizably voluminous intestine and become inflamed)
  • Ulcerative Colitis
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

What are the Symptoms of an anal fistula?

Symptoms of an anal fistula are as mentioned below,

  • Irritation of the skin around the anus,
  • The pain may subside once the fistula discharges.
  • Smelly discharge from around your anus.
  • When you poop, you may pass pus or blood.
  • If you also have an abscess, you will notice swelling and redness around your anus
  • Controlling bowel movements is often (bowel incontinence).
  • Fever, chills, and exhaustion

When to see your doctor in a fistula?

If you experience any of the following signs or symptoms, we request you to contact your surgeon urgently. 

  • Changes in your significant bowel habits
  • Extreme Diarrhea with bleeding
  • Leakage of fluid from a hole in your abdomen or near your anus
  • Curious abdominal pain and irritation of the skin around the anus.

How is an anal fistula diagnosed?

Your surgeon can usually evaluate an anal fistula by examining the area around the anus. The doctor will then determine how deep the tract is and which way it is moving in. Most of the time, there will be drainage from the external opening. It may hide some fistulas underneath the skin surface.
Here, your physician may need to perform additional tests:

  • An anoscopy is a procedure in which a specific instrument is used to see inside your anus and rectum.
  • To gain a sharp look at the fistula tract, your doctor may also conduct an ultrasound or MRI of the anal area.
  • To diagnose the fistula, your surgeon may need to examine you in the operating room (we know this as an exam under anesthesia).

If a fistula gets discovered, your doctor may order additional testing to determine whether it concerns the problem with Crohn's disease, an inflammatory disease of the gut. Blood tests, X-rays, and colonoscopies are examples of these studies. A colonoscopy is a procedure that involves inserting a piece of flexible, lighted equipment through the anus or into the colon. They conduct it under conscious sedation, which is a type of light anesthesia. They widely performed a colonoscopy to investigate gastrointestinal symptoms such as bleeding, abdominal pain, or changes in bowel habits. 

What are the treatments for anal fistula?

Surgery is virtually always indispensable to remedy an anal fistula. A colon and the rectal surgeon performed the surgery. The purpose of the procedure is to maintain the balance while removing the fistula and maintaining the tone of anal sphincter muscles, which could cause incontinence if damaged. A fistulotomy is used to treat fistulas that have no or little sphincter muscle involvement. They cut the skin and muscles over the tunnel open to change it. The fistula tract can then repair from the bottom up.

Rough fistula and Complex fistula surgery may necessitate a draining section, which must be left in place for at least 6 weeks.

They always undertake a second procedure once surgeons place a seton:

  • A fistulotomy, in which doctors cut the skin and muscles over the tunnel open to change it. Fistulotomy is surgery to open and drain an anal fistula, helping the fistula to heal.
  • The advanced flap treatment involves covering the fistula with a flap or piece of tissue extracted from the rectum.
  • A fistula LIFT method in which the skin above the fistula opens, the sphincter muscles spread, and surgeons tie it with the fistula off.

Injecting stem cells into the fistula is a new treatment for Crohn's disease fistulas. Before the procedure, your proctologist will go through all of your options with you. Skilled surgeons do fistula surgery as an outpatient procedure, so the patient can go home the same day. Patients with large or severe fistula tunnels may need to stay in hospital for a short period following surgery. Some fistulas may cause multiple operations to be removed.

You can request an appointment at Apollo Spectra Hospitals, Chembur, Mumbai.

Call 1860 500 2244 to book an appointment.


An anal fistula is a small tube that connects the anal canal to the skin near the anus. Because fistulas do not heal on their own, surgery is necessary. Surgical procedures such as Fistulotomy, Seton techniques, and LIFT surgery are viable options to treat anal fistulas. An anal fistula is most frequently caused by clogged anal glands and anal abscesses.



Can experts cure obstetric fistulas?

100% Yes, an obstetric fistula can be closed with corrective surgery. If an adroit surgeon performs the operation, a woman with a fistula can often return to routine life, with her continence and hope recuperated.

Is it possible for a fistula to heal on its own?

Fistula tracts are not self-healing and require medical attention. If a patient does not treat the fistula tract for an extended period, cancer may develop. Most fistulas are simple to treat.

What is the best fistula treatment?

A fistulotomy is the most successful treatment for many anal fistulas, although it is usually only appropriate for fistulas that do not pass through much of the sphincter muscles, as the risk of incontinence is low in these circumstances.


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